By Prof.Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) T.E. Institute of Larissa Greece ( April 2014)
Writing in Google “Big Bang discovery” one sees that it is described not by applying the well-established laws but by accepting the various false theories including various fields with wrong force carriers, the invalid relativity with the false mass-energy conservation, and models of strange string theories. So cosmologists today under the influence of the wrong mass-energy conservation of the INVALID RELATIVITY believe that in OUR EARLY UNIVERSE at first there was no matter, but only energy. They also believe incorrectly that initially there was an infinitesimally small and condensed point of energy. Moreover they assume that the big bang released vast amounts of energy that condensed into matter as the universe cooled, believing incorrectly that matter is just another form of energy.
Another fallacious idea is that the big bang didn't create the universe, because cosmologists believe that the big bang is the starting point of equal positive and negative energy without mass. Therefore Hawking believes that the universe created itself out from nothing and the entire universe was condensed down to a mathematical anomaly called singularity. According to his false ideas time itself is part of the universe. Also violating the two conservation laws of energy and mass characterizing an eternal Cosmos he believes incorrectly that time and space could not exist before the big bang .
To avoid such fallacious theories which lead to complications in my papers of 1993 and 2002 we applied carefully the natural laws which invalidate fields and relativity. According to the well-established natural laws and after my discovery of the PHOTON –MATTER INTERACTION it is well-known that the energy in OUR EARLY UNIVERSE could not turn into mass. In the same way mass could not turn into energy in accordance with the two conservation laws of energy and mass characterizing an Eternal Cosmos including OUR UNIVERSE . For example in the Bohr model the energy of the charge-charge interaction turns into the energy of the generated photon. Also the mass defect of the system proton - electron turns into the mass of the photon, while Einstein under his fallacious massless quanta of fields believed incorrectly that the mass defect turns into the energy of the photon. (See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ).
So after my discovery of quarks in proton and neutron and since at CERN scientists created the quark plasma one concludes that just at the first moment of the big bang, the universe was filled with an astonishingly hot, dense soup of neutral quark triads. However although LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY cosmologists under the influence of the wrong mass-energy conservation of the INVALID RELATIVITY today believe that in the big bang an unknown form of energy of fallacious fields like the so –called inflationary field and the WRONG GRAVITATIONAL WAVES turned into the mass of the particles under a fallacious Higgs field. (See my INVALIDITY OF HIGGS BOSON). Also under the influence of the invalid theory of the quantum chromodynamics today the scientists at CERN believe that the first moment of early universe was dominated by an unknown energy transformed into a mixture of quarks with the fallacious massless gluons, with strange color forces . Although the quarks interact with their charges to give the very strong quark bindings by applying the well-established laws of electromagnetism the gluons also were assumed as carriers of the false strong forces (See my CONFUSING CERN RESULTS AND IDEAS ). In fact, in those first evanescent moments of extreme temperature the quark triads were bound only with electric attractions of the Coulomb law because the magnetic attractions due to quark spins were absent under the quantum dynamics of non oriented spins.
To recreate conditions similar to those of the very early universe, powerful accelerators make head-on collisions between massive ions, such as gold or lead nuclei. In these heavy-ion collisions the hundreds of protons and neutrons in two such nuclei smash into one another at energies of upwards of a few trillion electronvolts each. This forms a miniscule fireball in which everything “melts” into a quark plasma. In heavy-ion collisions, the first evidence for jets was seen in 2003 in the STAR and PHENIX experiments at Brookhaven National Laboratory’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the US. These jets showed a remarkable difference from those in simpler collisions, however. In the most striking measurement, STAR observed that one of the two back-to-back jets was invariably “quenched,” sometimes weakened and sometimes completely extinguished. The further a jet has to push through the dense fireball of a heavy-ion collision – 30 to 50 times as dense as an ordinary nucleus – the more energy it loses.
Recently the ALICE, ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have confirmed the phenomenon of jet quenching in heavy-ion collisions. The much greater collision energies at the LHC push measurements to much higher jet energies than are accessible at RHIC, allowing new and more detailed characterization of the quark plasma.
So according to my discovery of PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION which invalidates Einstein’s ideas, the so-called Quark Epoch of the “Chronology of the universe-WIKIPEDIA” extends well into the so-called Planck Epoch (up to 10-43 sec) including the first moment (t = 0 of our universe) . In other words, the BIG BANG MATTER of the BIG BANG OF LAWS was formed just at the first moment under a primordial gravity acting on neutral quark triads (dud). For example under the well-established laws of gravity and electromagnetism of an Eternal Cosmos the primordial gravity of long range reduced the distance r between two neutral quark triads but when the distance r became very short near the size α, which is the diameter of quarks, enormous electric repulsions at r = α of short range between the quark triads were able to overcome the attractive gravity for creating the Big Bang rapid acceleration called inflation. The Big bang matter was so hot that the spins of quarks were non oriented and in the absence of an attractive magnetic force only isolated quark triads could exist because the electric attractions between the quarks of a quark triad were stronger than the electric repulsions between two quark triads. However cosmologists after the abandonment of the well-established laws today believe that the very early universe was governed not by laws but by wrong theories. In the “Planck epoch-WIKIPEDIA” one reads: “The Planck epoch is an era in traditional (non-inflationary) big bang cosmology wherein the temperature was so high that the four fundamental forces—electromagnetism, gravitation, weak nuclear interaction, and strong nuclear interaction—were one fundamental force”. Nevertheless writing in Google “Big Bang discovery” one sees that astronomers at Harvard discovered the GRAVITATIONAL WAVES of the INVALID GENERAL RELATIVITY .
For example in March of 2014, researchers of the Harvard university announced that they had detected the signature of the wrong gravitational waves (by assuming that they occurred during the Big Bang). In fact they found space time ripples of the photon-matter interaction in the cosmic microwave background, the ancient light that began pervading the universe 378,000 years after the Big Bang. In other words, they detected not the fallacious inflationary field of Guth (1980) with wrong gravitational waves of the invalid relativity but the space time ripples of photons when the velocity c was parallel to the gravity of galaxies and black holes in accordance with my discovery of the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION. (See my CONFUSING B-MODES and the FIRST PARTICLES ). Although Hawking and somel supporters of the string theories believe that the very early universe created itself out from nothing under positive and negative energies without mass the inflationary fallacious fields imply the waves of gravity which cannot exist without matter.
After the abandonment of natural laws unfortunately modern physicists rely on two different theories to explain the universe: Einstein's invalid general relativity and quantum mechanics with fallacious weak and strong interactions of wrong nuclear theories. and fallacious string theories
In fact, in OUR EARLY UNIVERSE existed only the fundamental forces of the well-established laws of gravity and electromagnetism acting at a distance in accordance with the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement. According to the accelerator experiments which have probed energies to reveal the quark plasma and using the fundamental laws of Coulomb and Ampere one may conclude that during the Big Bang the universe under an attractive gravity was characterized by the mass of neutral (dud) quark triads of very large density, because the gravity of long range became very powerful on nearly neutral particles of opposite charges, like the gravity in neutron stars. But the quantum effects were very important at very short distances (r = α). In such a small distance, which is much more smaller than the size of nucleons, the enormous electric repulsions between the quark triads could overcome the powerful gravity for creating the rapid acceleration. Note that in such a very hot and chaotic universe the magnetic forces could not operate under the quantum dynamics of non oriented spins of quarks. Then, as the universe cooled the spins of quarks were partially oriented for the formation of the quark plasma, and later when the spins were oriented, very strong magnetic attractions were able to overcome the electric repulsions between the quark triads responsible for the formation of neutrons and protons. (See my NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS and DISCOVERY OF UNIFIED FORCES ).
WHY THE STRONG TRIAD-TRIAD REPULSIONS IN BIG BANG COULD NOT LEAD TO THE ISOLATION OF QUARKS
In my paper QUAKS NEUTRINOS NUCLEONS AND NUCLEI one sees that the quark binding in protons and neutrons is due to very strong electromagnetic attractions based on the applications of the well-established laws of electromagnetism. In this case under the orientation of spins the binding energy of quarks is much more stronger than the nuclear binding because the spin of quarks gives a peripheral velocity greater than the speed of light. So like the coupling of two electrons the magnetic attraction of spinning quarks is greater than the electric repulsions between up-up interactions and down-down interactions. However during the very hot Big Bang under the quantum dynamics of non oriented spins we apply only the electric forces of the quark-quark interactions because the magnetic forces (due to spins) were absent. So in the absence of the magnetic attractions due to non oriented spins one can find approximately the very strong net electric attraction -Fe of the quark binding by using the following scheme
Since the distances (DU) = (Ud) = α (where α is the diameter of a quark) we may write the electric attractions - 2F of the Coulomb law as
-2F = 2K(-e/3)(+2e/3)/α2 = (-4/9)(Κe2/α2).
However at the distance (Dd) = 2α the quarks D and d exert an electric repulsion +F as
+F = K(-e/3)(-e/3)/22α2 = (1/36)(Ke2/α2).
Thus the net electric attraction –Fe is given by
-Fe = -2F +F = (-4/9 +1/36)(Ke2/α2 = -0.42Κe2/α2
Since α < 1 fm one concludes that the quark binding of an isolated quark triad in the conditions of the Big Bang is much more stronger than the nuclear binding. (See my DISCOVERY OF NUCLEAR FORCE AND STRUCTURE ). It is so strong that the triad-triad repulsions in the same direction cannot lead to the isolation of quarks because in the same direction the electric force of the triad-triad repulsion of the two quark triads D1U1d1 and D2U2d2 is weaker than the quark binding of a quark triad . The repulsion at the shortest distance ( r = α } in the same direction is given by using the following scheme
Since the distance (d1D2) = α we may calculate the repulsive forces +4F between the down quarks as
+4F = KD1D2/32α2 +KD1d2/52 α2 +Κd1D2/α2 +Kd1d2/32α2
Since D1D2 =D1d2 = d1D2 = d1d2 = (-e/3)(-e/3) = e2/9
we may write
+4F = (1/9)( 1/9 + 1/25 + 1/1 +1/9) (Ke2/α2) = 0.14Κe2/α2
Also the repulsion +F of the two up quarks is given by
+F = KU1U2/32α2 Since U1U2 = (+2e/3)(+2e/3) = 4e2/9 we may write
+F = (4/81)(Ke2/α2) = 0.0494Ke2/α2
On the other hand the attractive forces -4F between the down and up quarks are given by
-4F = KD1U2/42α2 + Kd1U2/22α2 + KU1D2/22α2 + KU1d2/42α2
Since D1U2 = d1U2 =U1D2 = U1d2 = (-e/3)(+2e/3) = -2e2/9
we may write
-4F= (-2/9)(1/16 +1/4 + 1/4 +1/16)(Ke2/α2 ) = -0.1389Ke2/α2
Thus the net repulsive electric force Fe = +4F +F-4F is
Fe = (0.14 +0.0494 -0.1389)(Ke2/α2) = 0.05Κe2/α2
That is, in the same direction the binding force of a quark triad is stronger than the triad –triad repulsion which means that the triad-triad repulsions cannot lead to the isolation of quarks.
DYNAMIC BIG BANG DUE TO VERY STRONG TRIAD-TRIAD REPULSIONS
To avoid confusions with fallacious forces of the so-called strong and weak interactions we modify the confusing "Chronology of the universe-WIKIPEDIA" as
Epoch of (dud) quark triads (Up to 1/1012 seconds)
In this very hot epoch under the quantum dynamics of not oriented spins the magnetic attraction was zero. So, initially the primordial gravity of long range could overcome the weak electric repulsions of short range between the nearly neutral (dud) quark triads. Of course, in this epoch of a dominant gravity the fallacious epochs of Planck, GUT, and electroweak could not exist because they violate the fundamental laws of gravity and electromagnetism. Also Guth’s idea of very small inflationary epoch during the so-called very early universe based on a wrong inflationary field and false vacuum energy is an incorrect idea. In fact, a primordial attractive gravity of long range reduced the distance r of the quark triads. Thus when r = α, at the size of quarks , The quark triads of the following scheme exerted enormous electric repulsions responsible for the rapid acceleration. . Here I describe not Einstein’s WONG GRAVITATIONAL WAVES but the primordial gravity of Newton’s law and the electric repulsions of the triad-triad interactions involving forces of the Coulomb law acting at a distance. Note that the magnetic attraction between the quarks could not exist because the very high energy of very early universe contributed to non-oriented spins of spinning quarks. In fact, the primordial gravitational attraction of long range acting at a distance on the quark triads caused the electric repulsions of short range between the quark triads when the quark triads were at very short distances. Using the triad-triad interaction of two triads of the following scheme
one may conclude approximately that when the distance r = ( D1D2) =( U1U2) =(d1d2) between the two quark triads D1U1d1 and D2U2d2 is much more greater than the quark diameter α =( D1U1) = (U1d1) that is, when r >> α the two quark triads behave like neutral particles. Thus the primordial gravitational attraction of long range acting at a distance reduces the distance r. However when r = α the two quark triads exert a very strong electric repulsion of short range in the triad-triad interaction of the Coulomb law.
In general for r/α = x applying the Coulomb law we can find the three dominant electric repulsions (+3F) of charges at the distances (D1D2) = (d1d2) = (U1U2), = r = αx as
+3F = 2K(-e/3)(-e/3)/a2x2 + K (+2e/3)(+2e/3)/a2x2 = (6/9x2)(Ke2/α2)
Also to calculate the electric repulsions ( +2Fcos φ ) of charges along the two diagonals (D1d2) and (d1D2) we see that the distances (d1D2) =( d1D2) =(α2x2 + 4α2). Thus cosφ = (D1d1)/(d1D2) = αx/(α2x2 + 4α2)0.5. So we write
+2Fcosφ = [2K(-e/3)(-e/3)][αx/(α2x2+4α2)0.5][1/(α2x2+4α2)]
Or +2Fcosφ = (2Ke2/9)[x/(x2+4)0.5][1/α2(x2+4)] = [2x/9(x2 +4)1.5](Ke2/α2)
However to calculate the four electric attractions (-4Fcosθ ) of charges along the diagonals
(D1U2) = (D2U1) =(d1U2) = (d2U1) = (α2x2 + α2)0.5 and since cosθ =αx/(α2x2 + α2)0.5
we can write
-4Fcosθ = 4K(-e/3)(+2e/3) [αx/(α2x2 + α2)0.5][1/(α2x2 + α2)]
Or -4Fcos θ = ( -8Ke2/9)[x/(x2+1)0.5][1/α2(x2+1)] = [-8x/9(x2+1)1.5](Ke2/α2)
Thus the net electric repulsion Fe = +3F +2Fcosφ -4Fcosθ is given by
Fe = [6/9x2 + 2x/9(x2+4)1.5 - 8x/9(x2 + 1)1.5](ke2/α2)
Since the total repulsive force is of short range here for x >> 1 the value in brackets becomes zero and the two quark triads behave like two neutral particles. Under this condition the primordial gravitational attraction between the quark triads could overcome the very small electric repulsions and contributed to the reduction of the distance r. Note that according to my DISCOVERY OF QUARKS IN PROTON AND NEUTRON the mass of the quark triad is
(d + u + d) = 3.69 +2.4 +3.69 = 9.78 MeV
which is 19.14 times greater than the electron mass ( m = 0.511 MeV)
However when r = α or x = 1 we can find the very strong electric repulsion Fe as
Fe = [(6/9 +2/9(5)1.5 -8/9(2)1.5]( Ke2/α2 ) = 0.37Ke2/α2
Since here α < 1 fm one concludes that the triad-triad repulsion (+Fe) is much more stronger than the proton-proton repulsions in the enormous nuclear fission.
On the other hand the very strong quark-quark attraction between the quarks of a quark triad tells us that our early universe started off with quark triads behaving at large distances with respect to the size of quarks as neutral particles able to receive the attractive gravity of long range. However they exert very strong electric repulsions at very short separations near the size of quarks for creating the rapid acceleration of our very early universe. Then, as the universe cooled the spins of the quarks were partially oriented and the magnetic attractions between the quarks were responsible for the creation of the so-called quark plasma.
Epoch of quark plasma (1/1012 - 1/106 seconds)
This is the epoch of long-ranged gravity and the short-ranged electromagnetic forces of the quark plasma which was unable to form nucleons under the quantum dynamics of partially oriented spins. It is well-known that at such high energies of partially oriented spins the accelerators produce a large number of unstable particles. It is also known that a quark plasma (which at lower energies form baryons, leptons, and photons), has been created in the lab by stamping nuclei together at extremely high speeds at Brookhaven RHIC. However under the wrong theory of quantum chromodynamics the physicists at CERN believe that the quark plasma is a quark –gluon plasma having the hypothetical massless gluons of energy, though energy without mass cannot exist. Note that despite the fact that energy cannot turn into mass, this epoch in WIKIPEDIA begins after the end of a false electroweak epoch in which all the fundamental particles acquire a mass from massless particles via the wrong Higgs field, though massless particles are the results of false theories, since energy without mass cannot exist. (See my INVALIDITY OF HIGGS BOSON ). At the end of this epoch the spins of the quarks were oriented and the magnetic attractions between the quark triads were able to overcome the electric repulsions. In this case since the size of quarks is a little greater than the size of an electron the peripheral velocity of the spinning quarks is greater than the speed c of light. So the magnetic attractions at very short separations are stronger than the electric repulsions. That is under the orientation of spins the triad-triad interaction is characterized by a very strong attractive electromagnetic force responsible for the creation of neutrons and protons.
The so-called “Big Bang Discovery” based on wrong theories leads to contradicting ideas and to complications violating the two conservation laws of mass and energy. In fact, the Big Bang discovery is due just to our discovery of the neutral quark triads which under a primordial gravity could exert enormous electric repulsions of the well-established Coulomb law responsible for the rapid acceleration of the very early universe. On the other hand the B-modes of the Cosmic microwave background reveal not the fallacious inflationary field with WRONG GRAVITATIONAL WAVES of a primordial period occurred 278,000 years before the creation of the microwave background. In fact, the B-modes reveal the interaction of the photons with a black hole or a galaxy when the velocity c of photons is parallel to the direction of the force of strong gravity acting at a distance in accordance with my discovery of the PHOTON –MATTER INTERACTION. (See my FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS ).