This article was announced to many universities around the world (September 2013).

By Prof. L. Kaliambos ( Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός ) T. E. Institute of Larissa. Greece

**PREFFACE **

Writing in Google Scholar “Kaliambos” one can see my paper IMPACT OF MAXWELL’S EQUATION OF DISPLACEMENT CURRENT ON ELECTROMAGNETIC LAWS AND COMPARISON OF THE MAXWELLIAN WAVES WITH OUR MODEL OF DIPOLIC PARTICLES presented at the International conference “Frontiers of fundamental physics” (1993). The paper invalidates Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether. Especially Maxwell for formulating his electromagnetic theory (1865) was based not on the well-established laws of Coulomb (1785) and Ampere (1820) but on wrong postulations. For example in the Faraday induction law (1832) of relative motions of magnets and conductors he used not the Faraday magnetic resultant exhibited by an electric current but a hypothetical electric field. Also in the Ampere law of force acting at a distance Maxwell used not the real current but a hypothetical “Displacement Current” between the plates of a capacitor. Note that according to the experiment of French and Tessman (1963) the hypothetical displacement current involves misconceptions. Although the famous experiment of Michelson and Morley (1887) rejected the ether in favor of Newton’s particles of light, Einstein using the Lorentz math of the ether theory develop his invalid theories of special and general relativity which violate not only the two conservation laws of mass and energy but also the Galilean principle of relativity of the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere. ( EINSTEIN BY LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ).

It is fortunate that all the detailed experiments of the Quantum Entanglement (1935) confirmed accurately the fundamental forces of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere acting at a distance with instantaneous simultaneity. Under this condition I revived the well-established laws for revealing the nuclear structure and binding. So one can also see my paper NUCLEAR STRUCTURE IS GOVERNED BY THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society (2002). Using the well-established laws which led to the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the time- independent Schrodinger equations in three dimensions (1926) I prepared the above paper published in Ind. J. Th. Phys. (2003). The paper reveals the nuclear structure by reviving the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere. Therefore it invalidates both Einstein’s relativity and the theories of the WRONG STANDARD MODEL developed after the abandonment of natural laws. (See in User Kaliambos the above papers along with my paper “ Spin-spin interaction of electrons and also of nucleons create atomic molecular and nuclear structures” published in Ind.J.Th. Phys. in 2008).

Prior to my papers it was assumed that nuclear phenomena are governed by the fallacious strong and weak interactions regarded as two separate, unrelated phenomena. The so-called strong and weak interactions were still shrouded in mystery, because the forces could not be couched in a simple formalism, nor could they be expressed in a closed analytic form. Hence in the description of nuclear properties one could rely on various wrong and contradicting theories and models. In fact, both strong and weak interactions are fallacious forces because all nuclear phenomena are interpreted by the detailed applications of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere.

**EINSTEIN’S INCORRECT RELATIVITY VIOLATES THE PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY OF THE WELL- ESTABLISHED LAWS**

It is indeed unfortunate that Einstein in his theory of invalid special relativity (1905) did not use the quantum dynamics of the absorption of photons, which interact electromagnetically with the charge of an electron for increasing both the energy and mass. Under this CRISIS OF FIELDS AND RELATIVITY we revealed that it occurs by applying the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere. However Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s wrong fields used the Lorentz math of an ether theory including not the electromagnetic forces of the Coulomb and Ampere laws acting at a distance but the Wrong Maxwell’s self- propagating fields.

In the opening paragraph of his paper Einstein introduced Maxwell’s a fallacious electric field in the induction law of Faraday (1832) though the experiments of Neumann (1847) showed that the induction law is consistent with the magnetic force of the Ampere law (1820). It is of interest to note that since the induction law occurs under the relative motion of magnets and conductors which give always magnetic forces, Faraday summarizes the results in the following short paragraph:

“ All these results show that the power of inducing electric currents is circumferentially excited by a magnetic resultant or axis of power, just as circumferential magnetism is dependent upon and is exhibited by an electric current.”

Nevertheless Einstein in the opening paragraph of his 1905 paper writes:

“It is known that Maxwell’s electrodynamics-as usually understood at the present time-when applied to moving bodies, leads to asymmetries which do not appear to be inherent in the phenomena. Take, for example, the reciprocal electrodynamic action of a magnet and a conductor. The observable phenomenon [namely the direction and magnitude of the induced current] here depends only on the relative motion of the conductor and the magnet, whereas the customary view draws a sharp distinction between the two cases in which either the one or the other of these bodies is in motion.”

In other words Einstein in his theory of special relativity violated the principle of relativity by pointing out that when the magnet is in motion and the conductor at rest, there arises in the neighborhood of the magnet a strange electric field.

In fact, according to the principle of relativity and the experiments of Neumann we revealed that Maxwell’s false electric field ( E ) of the induction law

EMF = E2πr = (dB/dt) πr^{2}

can be modified by using in the Faraday induction the magnetic force F_{m} of the Ampere law as

EMF = (F_{m}/q) 2πr = (dB/dt) πr^{2}

Here we see that Einstein tried to interpret the increase of the electron mass by using fallacious hypotheses in his wrong special relativity which cannot be related with the observed absorption of photons . Note that in our PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION we showed that photons interact electromagnetically with electrons by applying the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere.

**THE WELL-ESTABLISHED LAWS OF COULOMB AND AMPERE EXPLAIN ACCURATELY THE ABSORPTION OF PHOTONS BY ELECTRONS**

For simplicity a photon interacts with the charge (-e) of an electron in terms of E_{y} and B_{z} . So applications of the Coulomb and Ampere laws give

E_{y}(-e)dy = dW and B_{z}(-e)(dy/dt) = F_{m} Or B_{z}(-e)dy = F_{m}dt = dp = dMc

Since E_{y}/B_{z} = c we get dW/dM = c^{2} .

That is, under the applications of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere a photon provides both energy hν and mass m absorbed my an electron as

hν/m = dW/dM = c^{2}

So all wrong hypotheses of Einstein about the interpretation of the photoelectric effect and the development of his invalid special relativity according to the two conservation laws of energy and mass of the fundamental Newtonian mechanics should be modified since the increase of the electron mass is due not to the invalid Einstein’s relativity but to the absorption of energy and mass of photons which increase the energy ΔΕ and the mass ΔΜ of an electron as

hν/m = ΔΕ/ΔΜ = c^{2}

Note that the invalid special relativity providing the so-called “mass –energy equivalence” violates the two conservation laws of energy and mass, because during the absorption of photons energy cannot turn into mass but both energy and mass of a photon are transformed into the energy and mass of the electron. In other words the so-called “massless photons” of Einstein did much to retard the progress of physics.

In fact, the photon energy and mass increases the energy and mass of an electron in accordance with the fundamental conservation laws of energy and mass of the Newtonian mechanics under the application of the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb and Ampere. For example the experimental result of Kaufmann (1902)

M^{2}/M_{o}^{2} = c^{2}/(c^{2-}u^{2})

is interpreted by applying Newton’s second law F = dp/dt. .

Here M_{o} is not the fallacious rest mass of Einstein but the constant inertial mass of the electron which becomes a variable mass M under a basic length contraction and time dilation. ( See myNEWTON INVALIDATES EINSTEIN ). Since in the quantum dynamics the absorbed photon increases both the mass M and the velocity u of the electron the application of Newton's second law leads to

Fds = dW = (dp/dt)ds = [d(Mu)/dt]dt = d(Mu)u = ( Mdu + udM)u

Indeed differentiation of the experimental result of Kaufmann leads to

dMc^{2} = (Mdu +udM)u = dW . That is, hν/m = dW/dM = c^{2}

In this interaction we see that the magnetic force F_{m} of the Ampere law due to the velocity dy/dt produced by the electric force of the Coulomb law must occur after the electric force. As a result this situation should violate Newton’s third law of instantaneous simultaneity. So to avoid such a situation the velocity dy/dt should approach to zero under a basic length contraction (dy) and time dilation (dt). To conclude we emphasize that all experiments and observations assumed to be interpreted by the wrong hypotheses of Einstein which violate the two conservation laws of mass and energy are explained here accurately by applying the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere.

**IN ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR BINDINGS THE ENERGY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCES TURNS INTO THE ENERGY OF GENERATED PHTONS WHILE THE MASS DEFECT TURNS INTO THE MASS OF PHOTONS **

Bohr in 1913 showed accurately that the energy of the generated photon is due not to the mass defect of the system electron-proton but to the charge-charge interaction of the electron-proton interaction.(See my BOHR AND SCHRODINGER REJECT EINSTEIN ). He used the Coulomb law according to which the electric energy turns into the energy of the generated photon. Therefore the mass defect is transformed into the mass of the photon which confirms the Newtonian particles of light having mass. It also confirms the two conservation laws of energy and mass of the Newtonian mechanics. To radiate a photon, or to absorb energy, the electron must do so while decreasing or increasing its orbits, i.e., during the transition from one stable orbit to another. Evidently when a photon with more energy than needed to free the electron is absorbed, part of the energy is used to ionize the atom and the rest is given to the electron as kinetic energy. Bohr says: “Obviously, we get in this way the same expression for the kinetic energy of an electron ejected from an atom by photoelectric effect as that deduced by Einstein, that is KE = hν –W….”

However Einstein in his invalid theory of special relativity suggested that the kinetic energy of a moving particle might be redefined as

KE = dMc^{2} =Mc^{2} – M_{o}c^{2}

That is, he rejected himself because he introduced the fallacious concepts of rest energy M_{o}c^{2} due to a fallacious rest mass M_{o} and the energy of a false relativistic mass M moving relative to a randomly moving observer.

In fact, according to the fundamental Newtonian mechanics all particles in the absence of the photon absorption have not a fallacious rest mass but a constant inertial mass, which cannot change during the acceleration.Note that Einstein in general relativity used this property of mass by introducing his "equivalence principle" which rejects his theory of special relativity. (See my NEWTON INVALIDATES EINSTEIN ).

Under this CRISIS OF FIELDS AND RELATIVITY in 2002 we revealed that the nuclear binding is due not to the mass defect of nucleons but to the electromagnetic forces of the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere. (See my NEW ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS ). A detailed analysis of electromagnetic laws showed that the nuclear force is an electromagnetic force of short range between 9 extra charged quarks in proton and 12 ones in neutron of the NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS .

To conclude we see that all phenomena of quantum, atomic, molecular, and nuclear physisc are interpreted by the well-established principles and laws discovered by the great physicists of the history of physics, like Galileo, Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere. Also Bohr and Schrodinger who developed concepts based on natural laws for the progress of quantum and atomic physics reject Einstein's fallacious hypotheses, which did much to retard the progress of science.