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12 AMERICAN PHYSICISTS REJECT EINSTEIN

'By prof. LEFTERIS KALIAMBOS ( Λευτέρης  Καλιαμπός)' T.E. Institute of Larissa Greece

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Olympia 1993. I am among the first participants

This paper was announced to many universities around the world (November, 2013)

Einstein under his invalid relativity underestimated the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb, and Ampere, with action at a distance confirmed by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement. He also underestimated the important experiments like those performed by the  American physicists Michelson and Morley who rejected the fallacious Maxwellian ether.  Einstein in his book “The Evolution of Physics” (1938) wrote the following  generalities: “The relativity theory arose from necessity, from serious and deep contradictions in the old theory from which there seemed no escape. The strength of the new theory lies in the consistency and simplicity with which it solves all these difficulties, using only a few very convincing assumptions.”  Also in his conclusions ( Physics and reality) he wrote: “Science is not the collection of laws…” and  continued  “The difficulties connected with the structure of the ether induced as to create a more subtle reality. The important invention of the electromagnetic field appears. A courageous scientific imagination was needed to realize fully that not the behavior of bodies but the behavior of something between them , that is, the field, may be essential for ordering and understanding events.”

 Unfortunately under the influence of Einstein’s relativity physicists today believe that Einstein superseded the natural laws based on experiments of great physicists including the American experimentalists. It is well-known that the famous  experiment of the two American physicists Michelson and Morley rejected the Maxwellian ether in favor  of Newton’s particles of light with gravitational properties confirmed by Soldner in 1801. Nevertheless Einstein in his general relativity introduced the “Equivalence principle” of Newton’s constant inertial mass which rejects his massless quanta of fields and his relativistic mass of special relativity. In fact, light consists of particles behaving like billiard balls proved by the American physicist Compton.  Also the two American physicists Davisson and  Germer proved that electrons have wave properties like the periodicity of light predicted by Newton. Finally the experiment of the two American physicists French and Tessman who showed the fallacy of Maxell’s fields led to our discovery of dipolic photons which in the photoelectric effect contribute not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the increase of the electron mass in accordance with the Kaufmann experiment. This fact based on the experiments of American physicists rejects dramatically all ideas of Einstein’s massless quanta of fields and the so-called relativity which violates not only the two conservation laws of energy and mass but  also the principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s  laws. 

  Writing in Google Scholar KALIAMBOS one can see my paper ‘Impact of Maxwell’s equation of displacement current on electromagnetic laws and comparison of the Maxwellian waves with our model of dipolic particles ” presented at the international conference “Frontiers of Fundamental physics” ( Olympia , 1993). In that paper I showed that the application of the well-established laws of Newton, Coulomb and Ampere along with the two conservation laws of mass and energy based on the principle of relativity invalidate both Maxwell’s fields and Einstein’s massless quanta of energy along the wave front of Maxwell’s fields leading to Einstein’s invalid relativity. Under this crisis of physics and for the progress of  science I abandoned definitely Einstein’s invalid relativity for my discovery of  the dipolic photons based on the experiment of Faraday (1845) who discovered the electromagnetic properties of light. I also was based on the experiment of Kaufmann (1902) according to which the absorption of photons in the photoelectric effect (1905) contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy but also to the electron mass. 

 Faraday in 1845 showed experimentally that a magnetic field parallel to the plane of polarization of light causes a torque on light. After a careful analysis of this phenomenon I discovered that light consists of particles behaving like moving electric dipoles. For example in a xyz system when the dipole moves along the x direction and its dipole axis is parallel to y one sees that according to the well-established laws of electromagnetism when the magnetic field or the magnetic intensity B is parallel to y it causes a torque on the moving dipole, while the magnetic intensities along the x and z directions cannot cause any torque on the dipole. In other words I discovered that light consists not of Einstein’s massless quanta of fields but of dipolic photons having energy hν and momentum p =hν/c in accordance with the scattering experiment performed by the American physicist Compton. The dipolic photon has also a mass  m = p//c in accordance with the laws of the Newtonian mechanics. ( See my PHOTON OF LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS ).  

According to electromagnetic laws when the dipole of +q and –q separated by a distance r  moves with a velocity u along the x direction and the dipole axis is parallel to y we get the electric attraction F and the magnetic repulsion f without using the concept of field as

F = Kq2/r2 and f =kq2u2/r2 Since Weber in 1856 showed that K/k = c2 one gets F/f = c2/u2

That is at the speed of light (u = c) the dipole becomes a dipolic spinning photon producing waves. For simplicity when r  is parallel to y

one observes that F = f  while in case in which r is parallel to the velocity c the magnetic force is equal to zero (f = 0).

Disc

Olympia 1993. The editor offered to me this trophy

However the opposite charges of  the spinning dipolic photon interacts with the charge –e  in terms of Ey and Bz , and this fact led me to discover the PHOTON-MATTER INTERACTION according to which the absorption of photons in the photoelectric effect contributes not only to the increase of the electron energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ under a length contraction and a time dilation.   In the same presentation I showed also that Einstein’s relativity violates not only the principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws    but also the two conservation laws of energy and mass.  It is well-known that Greek philosophers like Democritus developed the conservation law of mass confirmed by experiments. So the editor of the conference offered to me a trophy having the Greek philosopher DEMOCRITUS. 

Ironically 9 years later (2002) when I presented my paper “Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic nuclear physics society ( N.C.S.R. “DEMOKRITOS” ) some elderly professors abandoned the auditorium

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N.C.S.R. "Demokritos" (2002)

because I discovered the nuclear structure and binding by using not the traditional nuclear theories based on Einstein’s invalid relativity but by reviving the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere. The opposition was so strong that during the introduction of my discovery of nuclear binding and structure  in Google Scholar  my name was replaced by the names of  two Greek physicists who presented papers irrelevant to our discovery of nuclear structure, because all the traditional nuclear theories based on Einstein’s invalid relativity so far could not lead to the nuclear structure and binding.  Writing in Google Scholar the title of my paper “Nuclear structure…” one can see on page 11 not my name (the name of the discoverer of nuclear structure and binding) but the names of two Greek physicists who published papers irrelevant to the subject.  Nevertheless for the progress of nuclear  structure and binding I published the paper in Ind. J.Th. Phys. (2003). Note that the abandonment of Einstein’s invalid relativity led me to  discover the nuclear structure by using the experiments of the magnetic moments of proton and neutron. (See my NEW STRUCTURE OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS ).  A detailed analysis of the nuclear experiments revealed that in proton there exist 9 extra charged quarks and in neutron 12 ones among 288 quarks in nucleons which interact electromagnetically for giving the nuclear binding and structure.

In spite of a strange traditionalism  of elderly professors of academic establishments who retard the progress of my discovery of the nuclear  structure and binding,  during the 3 last years of democracy in internet  I published  a large number of papers which seem to be heretical because I disagree with the validity of the various traditional theories under the revision of the well-established laws of nature. ( See my NEW REVOLUTION IN PHYSICS )  It is indeed unfortunate that my revolutionary ideas in fundamental physics find invariably difficulties in being accepted by the majority of several academic establishments, no matter how well formulated and important they could be. While the ruling of the majorities is a fundamental feature of every democracy, it certainly does not apply to science, where the great steps forward have always been made by isolated individuals. This dogmatic hardening risks today to make the scientific majorities impenetrable to a critical understanding of the foundations of modern physics based on natural laws and experiments.

Historically the first experimentalist who discovered the induction of electric current by producing electricity from magnetism  was the American scientist J. Henry. However he was not able to publish his work until a year later, and in the meantime Faraday published similar results in 1832.  According to the principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws  an electric current is produced from magnetism under the relative motion of a magnet with respect to a conductor (no matter what is moving). Although F. Neumann in 1845 proved experimentally that the induction of an electric current is due to the magnetic force acting at a distance of the well-established law of Ampere (1820),  Maxwell in 1865 in order to develop his electromagnetic theory  introduced a fallacious electric field when the magnet moves with respect to a conductor which violates the principle of relativity.

Ironically Einstein in his theory of special relativity starts with this fallacious electric field of Maxwell violating dramatically Galileo’s principle of relativity deduced from Newton’s laws. ( See my NEWTON INVALIDATES EINSTEIN ) . Although the first discoverer of the induction law, J. Henry, produced electric current from magnetism, Einstein under his fallacious massless quanta of fields in the introduction of his invalid   relativity in order to justify his hypothesis that the increase of the electron mass in the Kaufmann experiment (1902) is due not to the absorption of his massless quanta of fields by the electron but to a hypothetical velocity of the electron with respect to a randomly moving observer, wrote; “ It is known that Maxwell’s electrodynamics-as usually understood  at the present time-when applied to moving bodies, leads to asymmetries which did not appear to be inherent in the phenomena…. For example when the magnet is in motion and the conductor at rest one explains the current in this way: There arises in the neighborhood of the magnet an electric field with a certain definite energy, producing a current at the places where parts of the conductor are situated.”

Unfortunately though the Maxwellian ether (1865) was rejected by the two American physicists Michelson and Morley (1887) Einstein influenced by Maxwell’s fields moving through a fallacious ether abandoned Newton’s rectangular particles of light deduced from the polarization of light. Thus he introduced his fallacious massless quanta of fields, though Newton predicted the bending of his rectangular particles of light near the sun confirmed by Soldner in 1801. In fact light consists not of Einstein’s massless quanta of fields but of photons named by the American scientist Lewis (1926), . It is well-known that the American scientist Lewis for giving the term photon was based not only on the experiment of the two American physicists Nichols and Hull (1903) who demonstrated he pressure of light but also on the so-called COMPTON SCATTERING  (1923) performed by the American physicist Compton, who showed experimentally that light consists not of  massless quanta of fields but  of real particles behaving like billiard balls. Note that Einstein under his fallacious massless quanta of fields tried to unify gravity with electromagnetism without success. So in 1954 he expressed his frustration to M. Besso as “ I consider  it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept, i. e., on continuous structures.”

Fortunately after nine years (1963) the experiment of the two American physicists French and Tessman  showed the fallacy of Maxwell’s fields because the basic postulation of Maxwell’s (displacement current) involves misconceptions. Under this discovery in 1993  I revealed that the absorption of the  photons of the American scientist Lewis in the photoelectric effect contributes not only to the increase of the electron  energy ΔΕ but also to the increase of the electron mass ΔΜ  in accordance with the experiment of Kaufmann, who explained his experiment by using the so-called “electromagnetic mass” recognized by J. J. Thomson in 1881.  (See my THOMSON AND MICHELSON REJECTS EINSTEIN ).

Under such an influence of  fields moving through a Maxwellian ether Einstein and Lorentz were both defenders of the existence of ether. Einstein himself in his general relativity (1916) introduced a fallacious “ether structure” or a strange “curvature of spacetime” for explain the bending of his fallacious massless quanta of fields when they pass near the sun, though Galileo showed that the curved trajectory of a projectile is due to his discovered laws by using carefully the Euclidean geometry  . ( See my NEWTON AND GALILEO REJECT EINSTEIN ).  So  in 1924 Einstein wrote: “According to special relativity, the ether remains still absolute because its influence on the inertia of bodies…” That is Einstein contradicts himself because in his special relativity (1905) wrote: “ The introduction of a luminiferous ether will prove to be superfluous…”       

Despite  the famous experiment performed by the two American experimentalists Michelson and Morley who rejected the Maxwellian ether in 1887 in favor of Newton’s particles of light having mass with gravitational properties Einstein under his massless quanta of fields tried to interpret the bending of light by using not the laws of Galileo’s projectile but his fallacious hypothesis of an “ether structure” or a curvature of vacuum based on the wrong concept of field introduced by Faraday who believed that the induction of an electric current is due to a stimulation of vacuum around magnets and currents.  Faraday imagined that the vacuum surrounding the magnets and electric currents was in a state  of tension like stretched rubber bands; he called these fallacious bands “lines of force” though Ampere in his law (1920) found real magnetic forces without using the concept of field.  So when  Michelson and Einstein met briefly in 1931, Michelson remarked that he regretted that his experiment might have been responsible for giving to such a “monster” – referring to the theory of relativity.  

 It is of interest to note that Einstein under his fallacious massless quanta of fields in his incorrect explanation of the photoelectric effect did not take into account both the experiment of Kaufmann and the important experiment of the two American experimentalists Nichols and Hull (1903) who demonstrated  the pressure of  light  and the transfer of momentum p =  E/c between light and matter. Of course these two experiments  mean that light  consists of real particles like the photons of Lewis , which at the beginning have never been used by Einstein. In fact light consists of real  particles having always  mass m = p/c like the particles of Newton who predicted the gravitational properties of  his rectangular particles of momentum p and mass m = p/c confirmed by Soldner in 1801.

Moreover in 1923 the American physicist Compton showed experimentally that light consists not of Einstein’s massless quanta of fields but of real particles behaving like the billiard balls. Especially he discovered that a beam of x-rays can collide with an electron, and bounce off with slightly changed characteristics in another direction while the electron recoils as though it were one billiard ball hit by another. The special feature here is that if we treat the x-ray as a real particle, with energy hν and momentum p = hν/c then the event is completely described as a particle collision process between a real particle of light  and an electron.

Under this new nature of light which became better understood in terms of particles having energy momentum and mass the American experimentalist G. Lewis gave the term “photon” from the Greek word “Phota”. Note that G. Lewis considered photons as carriers of energy, while the wrong theory of the quantum electrodynamics based on the fallacious Einstein’s massless quanta of fields describe photons as carriers of electromagnetic forces. This fallacious idea violates the fundamental action at a distance confirmed by the experiments of the Quantum Entanglement. Whereas Einstein  called it “Spooky action at a distance because the Quantum Entanglement invalidates his fields. Note that in 1972 the two American researchers S. Freedman and J. Clauser experimentally test Bell’s theorem by measuring the polarizations of a pair of photons. Though the team found that the  inequality is indeed violated, some loopholes existed in the experiment.

After the experiment (1963) of the two American physicists French and Tessman I showed in Olympia (1993) that the two moving charges +q and –q of a moving dipole interact electrically and magnetically without using the concept of fields. It is well-known that such fields are used only for simplifying the problems. For example in the Coulomb law the vector E = F/q is not an electric field strength but a simple electric intensity E = F/q which gives at every point in space around a charge Q the force that would act at a distance on a unit positive charge. That is, the electric intensity or the electric field strength cannot carry any electric force, because it is the same force of the at a distance interaction of charges described by the well-established laws of Coulomb and Ampere. According to the well-established  Biot-Savart law the vector B of the magnetic charge-charge interaction is not a line of force but it helps us to find the difficult geometry for calculating the vector of the magnetic force acting at a distance. However  Einstein in his book ‘The evolution of physics” (Chapter FIELD AND RELATIVITY) abandoned the real magnetic force of the well-established law of Ampere in favor of the fallacious “lines of force”.  On the other hand despite of enormous success of the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions Einstein in his chapter PTOBABILITY WAVES   of the book pointed out that the system proton-electron is characterized my sis dimensions. 

It is well-known that the experiment of the American physicist Compton led to the De Broglie Hypothesis (1924) that electrons also should behave  like waves as well as like particles . Such an idea could not be accepted by Einstein because Maxwell’s theory developed after the abandonment of Newton’s particles of light assumed to produce no waves. Ironically it was Newton who suggested that light might have to be somehow assigned also periodic properties in order to account for the phenomena of colors. Fortunately in 1926 the two American physicists Davisson and Germer carried out many experiments with electrons which not only confirmed the de Broglie hypothesis but also showed that the periodic nature of Newton’s particles of light having mass was correct. Nevertheless Einstein believed in his massless quanta of fields which led not only to the invalid relativity but also did much to retard the progress of nuclear structure and binding. Under this obvious crisis of nuclear physics today the invalid relativity of academic establishments retards the progress of my discovery of nuclear structure and binding.